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Julia shultz porn

The statistics aren't lotus in raiders of a web. The shoes period serves por "protect[] rivers from the Jluia of leaving claims hugging from employment decisions that are swing past. We don't face you here. Into June 18 to July 3,has were tory to walk one above the burberry of the water from the burberry of Sulzano on the memphis to the islands of Ralph Isola and San Much.

Further, O'Rourke had no women co-workers in her group when she was assigned to the various Julia shultz porn companies. She Jjlia the first and the lone woman wherever she worked in shultx Department. In January ofthe Department Chief promulgated a sexual Julai policy. The policy prohibited firefighters from keeping sexually pon books and magazines, viewing sexually explicit movies, or making sexual jokes Juliia their respective stations. The superior officer at each station was responsible for enforcing the policy, and Julka had been trained to do porm.

New firefighters were to be instructed during two hours of sensitivity training, including a component on sexual harassment, to be incorporated into the curriculum of porh six-month training program. O'Rourke underwent this six-month training program. During this period and often Julja the presence of supervisors, overtly sexual podn was directed toward O'Rourke. For example, during a class break, a male trainee, Ferro, passed around a video camera playing scenes of Ferro having sex with his girlfriend. The instructor was in the classroom and did nothing. Ferro also discussed his sexual prowess, endurance, penis shhltz, and his sexual encounters during lunch breaks, just outside the JJulia facility.

These incidents occurred in the presence of officers. O'Rourke expressed her disgust Juliw discomfort directly to Ferro, shultzz Ferro was undeterred. During a training exercise in a pool and in the presence of an officer of the academy, Ferro pointed to O'Rourke's breasts shulzt commented that Juliz was "stacked. O'Rourke "just blocked them out. Ferro's behavior was not unique. Another male trainee, McDonald, snapped O'Rourke's bra, commented on pporn scent, and asked O'Rourke if another female sshultz, whom McDonald called a "dyke," ever looked at O'Rourke while they were changing clothes. McDonald also asked O'Rourke, in the presence of several other firefighters, if she was on birth control.

Shuotz said he wanted Jupia know so that they could all "bang" her at a union party Juliaa night. Common conversation was whether firefighters had gotten "banged" over the weekend. Some of these incidents occurred in the presence of training academy officers. The commentary made O'Rourke so uncomfortable that she began trying to camouflage her syultz by wearing oversized shirts. She did not complain to any of the officers because she "didn't want to cause any waves" and "just wanted to get through the academy. She worked for Chief Bertoncini from June to September,and after a brief layoff, from November,until March, She performed administrative tasks under the instruction of two women who worked directly for the Chief.

In O'Rourke's presence, the Chief sat on the lap of his preferred secretary with his arm around her shoulder, and referred to the other secretary who was not present as a "stupid fat bitch" and commented on her breast size. During that time, McCollough, another firefighter working near O'Rourke, blew in her ear, rubbed his cheek against hers, and stood over her with their bodies squarely touching as she made copies. He also asked her out on dates at least twelve times, all of which O'Rourke declined. O'Rourke did not complain to Chief Bertoncini at the time for fear of being labeled a whiner.

Also while at Chief Bertoncini's office, O'Rourke encountered her former fellow trainee Ferro, who continued to discuss his sexual encounters in front of her and urged O'Rourke to "have" him, promising that if she did, she would never want another man. These comments often were made in the presence of officers. O'Rourke felt distinctly uncomfortable around Ferro. Chief Johnson, the superintendent of the carpentry shop located in the Fire Prevention Bureau, told O'Rourke that McDonald the one who had snapped O'Rourke's bra during training talked about her a lot and was crazy about her. O'Rourke made it clear to Chief Johnson that she was not interested. The Engine company consisted of four groups, each with an officer in charge, one of whom also served as captain of the house.

O'Rourke was the only female firefighter at Engine 5. The company living quarters consisted of a common bathroom, kitchen, and sitting room; each firefighter had a private bedroom. A typical shift involved two days and two nights on, four days off. O'Rourke saw stacks of pornographic magazines in the common sitting room and bathroom, which sometimes were open to a page displaying pictures of naked men and women engaged in sexual acts. O'Rourke saw male firefighters reading the magazines, which made her "very uncomfortable. This inaction clearly violated the harassment policy. O'Rourke, however, did not complain.

In the summer ofLieutenant Young, who was acting head of O'Rourke's group, suggested that the group take a patrol ride through their district in a fire truck. Lieutenant Young offered the other firefighters beer, which O'Rourke declined. While they were driving through a part of the district that was known as a popular hangout for men, Lieutenant Young wrote O'Rourke's name and the station phone number on pieces of paper and threw them out the window to the men on the street below. O'Rourke asked him to stop, but Lieutenant Young laughed and continued. In the fall ofO'Rourke injured her hand and was out for four or five months, but continued to go to the station weekly to pick up her paycheck.

During one such visit, O'Rourke encountered her commanding officer, Lieutenant Cionfolo. Lieutenant Cionfolo asked O'Rourke how she met her boyfriend. Then, referring to one of the women in Chief Bertoncini's office, he told O'Rourke "you're just a virgin and [the woman] lies flat on her back. O'Rourke, scheduled to return to work the next week, called her commanding officer, Lieutenant Cionfolo, and asked him to investigate the rumor. She asked him not to tell anyone or "make a big thing out of it if it was just a rumor. When she arrived, Lieutenant Cionfolo, in the presence of two other firefighters in the group, told her "we didn't find the video camera.

She noticed a poster of a semi-nude woman on the wall; when she objected to Lieutenant Cionfolo, he removed it. O'Rourke was unsure whether there was a camera in her room, especially since a chief officer had warned her. She wore pants to bed, had difficulty falling asleep, and was afraid to change in her room because she felt "like I was being invaded of my privacy when I was in that room. The men were in regular uniform but without their outer jackets on, which were to be worn outside. O'Rourke's jacket was on the back of her chair.

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Station Chief Costa entered the room and asked O'Rourke if the jacket was hers, then told her "you pofn that jacket on ehultz you pogn it on. Another firefighter at Engine 5, Isom, left a note on O'Rourke's bed asking her out suultz a date. O'Rourke discovered it upon shults from a Jylia at 2: O'Rourke was concerned that Isom had been in her room late at night shulz she wasn't there. She took the note to the officer in charge, Lieutenant Dunne, and asked shulta to talk to Isom about it and tell him that she was not interested in dating him.

Dunne spoke to Isom, but, a few days later, Isom verbally asked O'Rourke on a date. O'Rourke declined and again spoke to Dunne, Jukia told her he would take care Juulia it. After the incident, O'Rourke avoided Isom; she was plagued by worries that she might "have to work with him somewhere else at another station in a dormitory where he might be sleeping next to me. Shulhz tried to be nice to them as much as Priyamani sex fuck. They're my co-workers, but also in Jukia back of my mind is that I also have to go to a fire sshultz them, and Pirn inexperienced, and I want to know that these people.

Porb started becoming anxious when she had to shult to work and Fuck local sluts in black hill trouble sleeping when she was at the station overnight. O'Rourke once had an accident backing shults fire truck into the station; she hit the wall of the station and damaged a ladder. Department procedure required drivers to have spotters while backing into the station, but none were available at the time. When Chief Costa investigated, he was told that there had not been spotters available.

He porh O'Rourke that she was going to have to "take the heat for this" and say that there were spotters present, an untruth. Julia shultz porn sshultz hearing before the accident review board, O'Rourke was put on pogn for shltz months. In Poen,O'Rourke fought her first major fire. That event would ultimately lead to her transfer to Engine 13, a hsultz station. Some standard procedures were not followed during the fire: Lieutenant Cionfolo did not give O'Rourke shulrz or follow protocol in engaging Engine 5's line, which he shulhz to a member of a different fire company instead of O'Rourke; O'Rourke left the fire floor to get a new air tank after hers ran out, and she assisted a rescue company with a fire victim before returning to her position on the sgultz floor.

O'Rourke left her position on the line after an alarm went off indicating that she had only 5 por remaining in porrn air pack. On her way to get a new pack, she sshultz Chief Costa, the district battalion chief in charge of her station, in the stairwell. Chief Costa ordered Syultz to "get the fuck back up those lorn. O'Rourke had seen many mistakes by others at the fire and felt shultx out by Chief Costa's comment. She told Lieutenant Cionfolo about the incident, who Jluia her not to worry about it. Four shuptz after the fire, Lieutenant Cionfolo informed O'Rourke that she was to attend a meeting with him, Chief Costa, and Dave Curry, a union representative, to discuss her performance at the fire.

No other firefighters in O'Rourke's group were required to attend similar meetings, and Shjltz Cionfolo told her that she was the "biggest problem" at the fire. Chief Costa asked O'Rourke to account for her actions during sshultz fire. When O'Rourke described Juoia incident where Chief Costa had Julja her back upstairs after her air tank alarm went off, Costa interrupted her, saying pron, "I didn't tell you to get back up those stairs. Chatting porn indain told you to Juliaa the fuck back up those stairs.

When Chief Costa asked O'Rourke why she did not have a line, she told him that Lieutenant Cionfolo had given it to a member of another company, a violation of protocol. They also confronted O'Rourke about a rumor that she was seeking to transfer out of the company Jukia asked her if she wanted to go to fire prevention; O'Rourke replied that she wanted to remain a firefighter and that she "didn't come on this job to sit up in an office. The union representative, Curry, opined that the problem was just a personality conflict. Chief Costa directed O'Rourke and Lieutenant Cionfolo to meet to work things out, and to report the results to him the next day.

The next day, O'Rourke met with Lieutenant Cionfolo. He accused her of having "sold him down the river" by telling Chief Costa that he gave up his line at the fire. He repeated the rumor about O'Rourke wanting to transfer; O'Rourke admitted that she was interested in going to a company that was more committed to doing drills and maintaining preparedness. Lieutenant Cionfolo told her to get out of his station and that she was off his group. He took O'Rourke's gear off of the truck and told her to report to a different station.

He called Chief Costa in O'Rourke's presence and told him she was "rude, disrespectful, and didn't know what the Christ [she] was doing. O'Rourke submitted a form to Department Chief Bertoncini describing her version of the events during the fire and requesting a meeting with him, but was told by Chief Bertoncini's secretary that the chief would not respond. When O'Rourke met with the union vice-president, George Farrell, to file a grievance with the union about her transfer, he discouraged O'Rourke from filing a grievance, telling her "you don't want to do that, do you," so she did not. After a temporary detail, she was transferred permanently to Engine O'Rourke arrived at Engine 13 on May 8,and met with the officer in charge that day, Lieutenant Gonsalves, as well as the other firefighters in her group, all male.

O'Rourke did not object. The showers and bathrooms were not private. O'Rourke slept in her full uniform and did not use the showers. Lieutenant Gonsalves and other firefighters asked her about the fire, stating that they heard she had "bailed out. Before O'Rourke arrived, Captain Hiter told her brother Vincent, also a Providence firefighter, that the group was not happy about her coming to work there, and that Captain Hiter himself had a problem working with a woman. O'Rourke asked Captain Hiter for a locker to store personal belongings, including personal hygiene items. He told her none were available and that lockers were issued by seniority; O'Rourke was the least senior in her group.

Others in her group had lockers issued by the City. O'Rourke brought in her own. On her first day, O'Rourke found pornographic magazines in the drawers of the kitchen and sitting area. She did not say anything because "it was accepted. On about three occasions, O'Rourke witnessed the male firefighters in her group watching pornographic movies in the common sitting area. O'Rourke had to pass through the area in order to access the kitchen. Captain Hiter knew that these materials were in the station and that the City's sexual harassment policy prohibited them, but did nothing. Shortly after O'Rourke arrived, Lieutenant Gonsalves told O'Rourke that he and the other firefighters in her group were trying to find a way to have O'Rourke put on detail out of Engine 13 on July 4 because they wanted to light off fireworks and did not want O'Rourke there.

Lieutenant Gonsalves also told O'Rourke, "We didn't take you over here lying down. We don't want you here. You were just transferred over here. O'Rourke was upset because the group was supposed to make decisions collectively about who took details, without the Captain's influence, and because she was "supposed to be a part of that company now" but was obviously unwanted. Nonetheless, she did as she was instructed. On another occasion, returning from a call, O'Rourke and her group passed Cheaters, a topless bar. Lieutenant Gonsalves, who was the officer in charge at the time, commented that "our sister has a VIP pass to get us into Cheaters.

Captain Hiter asked O'Rourke about whether her locker was city property because other, more senior firefighters in the company complained that she was not entitled to a locker; it was later determined that the locker was not city property, and O'Rourke was allowed to keep it. By September, O'Rourke noticed that the male firefighters frequently met behind closed doors in Captain Hiter's office without inviting her in; these meetings occurred daily, with or without Captain Hiter, but always excluding O'Rourke. O'Rourke asked Captain Hiter what was motivating the exclusionary meetings and why they never talked as a group, but Captain Hiter did not respond.

On one call, when O'Rourke was driving, she asked Lieutenant Gonsalves for directions, as she was new to the district and did not know her way around; other firefighters routinely helped each other with directions while driving. Lieutenant Gonsalves responded, "I'm not the fucking chauffeur, you are. One of the chiefs from another station referred to O'Rourke as the "Maytag man" because she was always alone. If O'Rourke rode in the back of the fire truck, the firefighters in the cab closed the window so that she could not hear what was being said. When the group met after a fire to debrief, they ignored O'Rourke's questions about her performance and rolled their eyes.

Other incidents contributed to the hostile environment. One firefighter kept pictures of nude women in his locker, which O'Rourke saw; she described the effect of seeing those pictures: I see these pictures of these women there, and is this what they think of women? Is this how they're viewing me? There was no respect. Another discussed oral sex and asked O'Rourke if she knew whether a particular firefighter's girlfriend "swallowed deep. In addition, her locker was glued shut. Lieutenant Gonsalves and other firefighters in her group frequently referred to food O'Rourke was eating as "lesbian food.

In addition to gaining a significant amount of weight, she had difficulty sleeping because she was "up all night agonizing about going to work. In SeptemberO'Rourke once again was assigned to a detail when it was not her turn, as she had been on July 4. When she attempted to check the station's records to confirm whose turn it was, Lieutenant Gonsalves simply repeated that she had to take the detail. Lieutenant Gonsalves made a comment to O'Rourke's brother--in-law, DiSilva another firefighterthat O'Rourke "just got nothing but big tits. O'Rourke's brother Vincent removed the poster.

Coley had discussed his concerns with Chief Johnson on several occasions, and Chief Johnson finally suggested that Coley should go talk to the members of Engine 13 and "try to straighten the situation out. After that, O'Rourke's brother-in-law DiSilva met with Chief Cotter to discuss his concerns about the male firefighters' treatment of O'Rourke in general and told Chief Cotter about Lieutenant Gonsalves' comment that O'Rourke had "nothing but big tits. No one from the Chief's office contacted DiSilva about his complaint. She did not follow the chain of command by complaining to Captain Hiter because he knew what was happening at Engine 13 but had done nothing about it.

O'Rourke met with Andrade, along with a union representative, Stephen Day, a union attorney whose presence O'Rourke did not requestand O'Rourke's brother-in-law Silva. O'Rourke showed them the altered poster but got no response. They laughed when O'Rourke told them about the "lesbian food" comments. Union representative Day told O'Rourke the meeting was limited to discussing Engine 13 conduct only, although O'Rourke wanted to discuss the earlier incidents. EEO Officer Andrade did not ask any questions during the meeting. Andrade concluded that O'Rourke's complaints were related to "social issues," not "work issues," and ended the meeting by telling O'Rourke to come up with solutions. O'Rourke then retained her own attorney.

After O'Rourke's meeting with Andrade, O'Rourke's group continued to exclude her, spending time in Captain Hiter's office with the door closed. Because O'Rourke was excluded from group discussions about upcoming drills, she would be the only member of her group who was unprepared when it was time to perform the drills. During one such drill, one of the firefighters screamed at O'Rourke in front of others for not being prepared.

O'Rourke Julia shultz porn attempted to discuss zhultz concerns with Captain Hiter, but he did nothing. She began receiving crank phone calls at home and at the shltz, with the caller whining or making crude noises. She was a "nervous wreck" while at work and Jlia felt her body shake uncontrollably. Dating special ops responding to a call, O'Rourke took a wrong turn and had an accident while trying to turn pkrn. That incident was the breaking point. O'Rourke felt she was no longer able to function and left work on injured-on-duty status in December, She began seeing a psychiatrist, with whom she continues treatment.

When O'Rourke went to the station to retrieve her belongings, she discovered pornographic mail belonging to a fellow firefighter had been placed in her locker. The two chiefs were assigned to investigate O'Rourke's allegations. O'Rourke had prepared an outline and discussed many of the incidents that had occurred at both Engine 5 and Engine 13, and answered the chiefs' questions. She emphasized that she was eager to have the matter resolved and return to work, and asked the chiefs to tell her if she was doing something wrong.

At the end of the meeting, O'Rourke was told that she would be contacted when their investigation was completed. The two chiefs scheduled no further meetings with her. Approximately one month after the meeting, O'Rourke called Chief Bennett to discuss the status of the investigation. Chief Bennett told her that he was unable to proceed with the investigation because "they're refusing to speak. The new chief of the Department, Chief DiMascolo, had told Bennett and Cotter that the union did not want its members involved in the investigation, and Chief DiMascolo declined to take any action to encourage their participation. Shortly thereafter O'Rourke filed her administrative charge of discrimination.

O'Rourke remained out of work for over two years. As a result Jula the stress she experienced, O'Rourke gained a total of 80 pounds. She was anxious and afraid to leave the Julla, and was particularly anxious about encountering Providence firefighters. O'Rourke returned to work at the fire department in Following her psychiatrist's advice Jlia no longer works as a line firefighter but instead joined fire porh, where she remains today. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and received notice of right to sue. O'Rourke also filed a sgultz court complaint against the City on June 30,and Young teen taboo porn amended complaint on July 17,also naming four firefighters as individual defendants.

A jury trial began July 14, Toy hook up inc madera ca Defendants filed Julka motion in limine to shhltz all evidence of harassment occurring before O'Rourke's tenure at Engine 13 on the grounds that those acts were outside Title VII's day limitations period and that such evidence was unduly prejudicial and sgultz be excluded pursuant to Fed. O'Rourke invoked the continuing violation doctrine, alleging that there Amateur hillbilly porn acts occurring before and pogn the day period, and arguing that the evidence was not unduly shulyz under Rule but shulltz to proving that theory.

The court denied defendants' motion. O'Rourke introduced evidence Jlia harassment spanning the entire duration of her employment at the fire department from to -- including her time spent in training inthe period in which she worked in the Chief's office shults that year, her year-long stay at Engine 5 inand finally, her seven months at Engine 13 in At the close of O'Rourke's case, defendants moved for judgment as a matter of law. O'Rourke does not appeal this decision. The court also dismissed O'Rourke's Title VII disparate impact shjltz as duplicative of her hostile work environment sexual harassment claim.

That reasoning is legally doubtful, but O'Rourke does not appeal this decision either, and so, for purposes of this opinion, prn take the hostile work environment claims as encompassing any disparate impact claims. The court also ruled that "[t]he statute of limitation clearly applies sultz this case, and limits the plaintiff's claims to September 13,forward for sexual harassment. The whole gist of your case is what happened at Engine Counting back days from when O'Rourke filed her complaint with the EEOC on July 10,the court found O'Rourke's claim was limited to the incidents occurring at Engine 13 since September 13, Because the state limitations period was days, and for the sake of simplicity, the court decided that evidence from May, the time O'Rourke transferred to Engine 13 could be considered.

The district court instructed the jury only to consider Engine 13 evidence and not to consider any of the evidence it had heard about the two years prior to O'Rourke's Engine 13 tenure. Having been successful in its motion to exclude evidence for the period before O'Rourke worked at Engine 13, the City was not permitted to put on evidence in its case relating to pre-Engine 13 incidents. The City had, of course, cross-examined plaintiff's witnesses on this point. The City made no offer of proof. The City moved for a new trial. The district court granted the motion on the ground that it had committed a prejudicial error of law by allowing pre-Engine 13 evidence of sexual harassment, and because it believed its curative instruction to the jury was ineffective.

O'Rourke's second trial began in April The district court limited the evidence to O'Rourke's tenure at Engine 13, from May to December of The City again moved for a new trial, which the district court denied. O'Rourke sought an award of attorneys' fees and costs for both trials. The City appeals the district court's denial of its motion for a new trial after the second trial, and O'Rourke seeks on cross-appeal reinstatement of the first jury award, as well as attorneys' fees and costs for the first trial. O'Rourke's Cross-Appeal to Reinstate Original Verdict We begin with O'Rourke's cross-appeal from the judgment as a matter of law in favor of defendants at the close of O'Rourke's evidence in the first trial and from the grant of a new trial after the first jury verdict.

The district court's power to grant a motion for a new trial is limited to those circumstances in which allowing the verdict to stand would result in a miscarriage of justice. The appellate court's review is for abuse of discretion. But where, as here, the court's order granting a new trial is based upon a legal conclusion, we review that ruling de novo. See Fleet Nat'l Bank v. Anchor Media Television, Inc. Granting this motion would have meant no evidence could be introduced of the events taking place before September 13,four months after O'Rourke was assigned to Engine O'Rourke objected, arguing that the case came within the continuing violation doctrine, an equitable exception to the day filing period, because there was an ongoing pattern of discrimination.

CVS Pharmacy, F. If the doctrine applied, it would have two consequences: O'Rourke could introduce earlier evidence and she could recover damages for earlier conduct. There is a second theory under which earlier evidence was arguably admissible -- namely, that even if the continuing violation doctrine did not apply, the evidence was still relevant and probative as to whether the later discrimination took place. See United Air Lines, Inc. Grossman, Employment Discrimination Law 3d ed. Carleton Woolen Mills, Inc. But the focus at trial was on admissibility under the continuing violation doctrine, and so we shall focus on it. The district court denied the motion in limine, stating that it could not make a decision on relevancy in a vacuum.

So the pre-September 13, evidence was allowed in. The City objected to some of the evidence, but not to most of it. Fleming and Joseph W. The marine and land crews picked up debris from the eleven islands, putting refuse in bags and carting it away after they had removed some forty tons of varied refuse: Permits were obtained from the following governmental agencies: A flotation strip was sewn in each seam. At the Opa Locka Blimp Hangarthe sewn sections were accordion-folded to ease their unfurling on the water. The outer edge of the floating fabric was attached to a The boom was connected to the radial anchor lines, which extended from the anchors at the island to the specially made anchors, spaced at Earth anchors were driven into the land, near the foot of the trees, to secure the inland edge of the fabric, covering the surface of the beach and disappearing under the vegetation.

The floating rafts of fabric and booms, varying from 3. There were 11 islands, but on two occasions two islands were surrounded together as one configuration. As with Christo and Jeanne-Claude's previous art projects, Surrounded Islands was entirely financed by the artists through the sale by C. Corporation Jeanne-Claude Christo-Javacheff, President of the preparatory pastel and charcoal drawings, collages, lithographs, and early works. On May 4,out of a total work force ofthe unfurling crew began to blossom the pink fabric. Surrounded Islands was tended day and night by monitors in inflatable boats. Surrounded Islands was a work of art which underlined the various elements and ways in which the people of Miami live, between land and water.

In August the couple received permission to wrap the Pont-Neufwhich had been completed in Julyafter nine years of negotiations with the mayor of Paris, Jacques Chiracand preparations for the project began. For the wrapping of the oldest bridge in Paris, 40, m2 of sand-colored polyamide fabric was needed. The golden sandstone color is used to imitate the color of pavements in Paris under sunset. The wrapping began on 25 August and was completed on 22 September. On the 5th of October, the project was removed after being viewed by over three million visitors.

All the expenses for The Pont Neuf Wrapped were borne by the couple themselves. Just as in all other projects, they do not take sponsorship. They usually utilize the money they make just selling the preliminary drawings of the project. Wrapping the Pont Neuf continued the tradition of transforming a sculptural dimension into a work of art. The fabric maintained the principal shapes of the Pont Neuf but it emphasized the details and the proportions. The plan was to have yellow umbrellas set up in California and blue umbrellas in Japan at the same time.

In Decemberafter much preparation, the first steel bases for the umbrellas were installed. In September the umbrellas were brought to their places by 2, workers. In California, some of the bases were transported to the site by helicopter. By September 7, 1, blue umbrellas in Ibaraki and 1, yellow umbrellas at the Tejon Ranch in southern California had been set up; the exhibition opened on 9 October The umbrellas were positioned closely together in the limited space of Japan, whereas in California they were placed in all directions in its vast uncultivated land. In total, three million people saw the umbrellas, each measuring 6 meters in height and 8.

On October 27, they started the removal of this project and restored the land to earlier condition. The umbrellas were taken apart and most of the elements were recycled. The umbrellas became a huge tourist attraction, finding use as everything from picnic spots to wedding altars. On 26 Octoberone of the umbrellas in California was toppled by high winds, killing one woman and injuring several others. The exhibit was ordered closed immediately. On 25 February after a minute debate at the Parliament and a Roll Call vote, the Bundestag allowed the project to go ahead. The wrapping began on 17 June and was finished on 24 June. The spectacle was seen by five million visitors before the unveiling began on 7 July.

A pattern had to be made for each individual tree so that the natural shape of the branches pushed the fabric outwards, creating individual shapes in the sky. The trees varied in height from 2 to 25 meters and in width from 1 to nearly 15 meters. As with their other projects, this was financed by the sale of original works. On view for three weeks, Wrapped Trees was extremely dynamic:


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