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The Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy CPRGSa year action plan adopted inoutlined a growth-based strategy for poverty reduction, with policies covering macroeconomic, structural and sectoral areas, and an identification of priority programmes designed to feed into the annual investment plan. Proposals include increased resources to improve the research and extension system, enhancing access to credit for the poor, improving security of land tenure and sustainable management of natural resources with the involvement of all stakeholders.
Design changes during implementation. Two-thirds of the CDF budget was drawn from funds of the under-performing credit sub-component and the remainder from savings in equipment procurement, training and project operation, together with a previously unallocated sum. The stated purpose of the CDF was to sharpen the poverty focus of the project and more directly to meet the priorities of communities expressed through PRA. The closing date of the project was shifted from 30 June to 31 December The only substantial under-achievement in financial terms was under the credit component. In physical terms, the project achieved its main objectives by: In terms of training and capacity building, a full programme of courses was implemented under each component.
Users groups and self-management boards were set up for the various activities to ensure the participation of communities in the implementation and maintenance of the various schemes. The main areas for concern were as follows. Rural poverty impact Overall impact assessment. Afforestation in the dunes provided direct income to poor households, as Seeking an outgoing woman in tuyen quang the various employment opportunities under the project. Access to schools, health centres and markets improved as a result of roadbuilding, and the communities located close to the rehabilitated markets benefited from better provisioned and more frequent markets.
On the other hand, the relative failure of the credit component entailed a dearth of the new income-generating opportunities for the poor which were envisaged in project design. Impact on physical assets. Irrigation schemes resulted in increased agricultural production mainly rice for an estimated 12, households. The remuneration of local labour entailed considerable cash earnings, notably in the construction of irrigation works and for tree planting and maintenance in the dune areas, where the selected households were able to earn up to VND 20 million in two years.
A total of VND 7 billion was paid to labourers for work on the new roads, although local labour was not always preferred by the contractors, despite requirements set out at project design. Households interviewed by the mission in six districts including the poorest districts of Minh Hoa and Tuyen Hoa reported an average reduction of the period of food deficiency of around three months. The new roads have contributed significantly to socio-economic development in isolated communes in mountainous and coastal regions, directly affecting perhaps 55, households. The movement of vehicles has increased substantially, with estimated increases of 3, percent, percent and percent for bicycles, motor cycles and pick-ups respectively.
Training and capacity building constituted an important aspect of the project, and nearly training courses were conducted by the project on animal husbandry, cultivation, integrated pest management IPMirrigation, road management and afforestation. Courses in IPM and in the raising and plantation of seedlings under the sand dune fixation component were particularly appreciated. The mission found with the exception of the issue of land titles for women little evidence of discrimination against women in project activities. Outstanding gender issues relate to inequality within households and to problems of empowerment rather than income: As mentioned above, the practice of granting of land use certificates in the husband's name prevents women from accessing formal credit, and the news of legislative changes, with titles issued jointly to husband and wife, has not filtered through to the villages.
It is felt that it is the effects of traditional culture and prejudice that underlie gender discrimination in Vietnam, rather than bias in government policy. Water supply, health, education. The provision of reliable and uncontaminated water supplies under CDF has had a positive effect on the incidence of diseases of the eyes and skin, as well as on dysentery and typhoid. Primary schools and kindergartens were also constructed under CDF. Schools reported a reduction in drop-out rates, an even gender balance and better health. Training in PRA was given to nearly workers at district and commune level and PRA exercises were carried out for all components.
However, there were weaknesses in terms of the purpose and outcome of these exercises, with PRA often conducted by line departments in order to seek approval and support for predetermined activities. Intensive social mobilisation was carried out by a handpicked team in three pilot villages, where significant advances were observed in terms of awareness, confidence and capacities, as well as of livelihood and welfare. The major breakthrough was the transfer of resources to SMBs for implementation and management of schemes. The environmental impact of ARCDP has been neutral or positive, but there are environmental problems concerned with the spread of shrimp farming, notably the contamination of groundwater in the sandy areas.
On the other hand, afforestation of the dunes has resulted not only in improvements of soil and water but in a greater understanding among villagers of the importance of tree planting and its continuation after project closure. Impact on institutions and policies. In terms of institutional development, the major efforts of the project were the building of management and technical capacities within the line departments, the establishment of an agricultural extension system to commune level, and the development of grassroots institutions. Institutional support was funded by UNDP, which reported major improvements in terms of knowledge, skills and effectiveness at all levels.
Under the agricultural development component, trained extension workers were appointed in each commune, an important achievement. Seeking an outgoing woman in tuyen quang farmers, however, reported the performance of commune level extension as unsatisfactory and further investment in training is essential. The sustainability of infrastructural improvements was not felt by the mission to be an issue, but there are concerns in other respects, notably regarding participatory approaches, as follows: With regard to training and capacity building, the mission made the following observations: The most important achievement of the project in this respect was the transfer of the financial management of development funds to village level.
Similarly, the Water Users Groups set up under the ARCDP irrigation have been replicated by the province for all small-scale irrigation schemes throughout the province. A further innovation of the project was the practice of carrying out separate PRA exercises for groups of men and women. The provincial initiatives to continue the employment of commune-level extension workers after project closure should also be commended. Performance of the project Relevance of objectives. The ARCDP attempted to addressed the shortage of productive land by expanding the irrigated area; the remoteness of communities by building and upgrading new roads and markets, the declining income from in-shore fishing by providing alternative sources of income, the problems of under-employment by providing credit, training and expertise in relevant areas and the destructiveness of typhoons through its contribution to the afforestation of the dunes.
The major design weaknesses related to the lack of integration between components, the formulation of the credit programme and the lack of poverty focus in the targeting of activities. Although poorer households benefited from the upgrading of roads, markets, irrigation schemes and domestic water supplies, they were not specifically targeted by the activities relating to increased agricultural production, animal husbandry and income generation. Assessment of the effectiveness of the project is bedevilled by the failure to set clear, measurable and time-oriented objectives for each component.
In some project documents, the objective at the component level was taken as the delivery of the budget. However, these objectives have not been matched with the overall objective of the reduction of poverty and food insecurity. The major issue raised by the mission in this respect is whether existing institutions have been sufficiently utilised in the identification of the needs of villagers and in the planning and implementation of activities. The achievements of the Social Mobilisation model in three villages were substantial, but project specific structures have no proper legal status, their functioning is dependent on the approval of the CPC and they tend to be led by the incumbent village heads and commune officials.
The model was imported from northern Pakistan, where it was designed to fill an institutional vacuum at the local level, but in Vietnam an administrative system is in place down to commune and village level and powerful mass organisations exist. Strengthening the existing institutions and involving them closely in project activities would be a more efficient, cheaper and more sustainable means to the desired ends. The main reasons for the poor performance and ultimate scrapping of the rural credit component were the existence of cheaper sources of credit and the lack of incentives for the participating bank. Collateral-free credit was to be an integral part of ARCDP activities and, by serving to support beneficiaries for improved livestock and crop production and other income generation enterprises, was to be the primary means of targeting the poorest households.
Because of collateral requirements and cumbersome procedures, alternative sources of credit remained beyond the reach of the poorer households. These problems were repeatedly raised by UNOPS supervision missions yet no effective action was taken until The fault may have lain partly with the infrequency of supervision missions, but there must also have been shortcomings in the communications between the project, the Cooperating Institution and IFAD. The performance of partners IFAD. The choice of Quang Binh province and the selection of activities were in line with the overall country strategy of IFAD and with the stated priorities of the Government. Project design can be criticised, however, for its weak poverty focus, its failure to insist on non-sectoral and objective PRA and the faulty design of the credit component.
The most important innovation created by the social mobilisation model was the transfer of the management of development funds to village level. If the necessary regulatory framework can be established, this may prove to be the most radical of project impacts in institutional terms. However, the mission encountered surprising ignorance of IFAD even among senior officials of donor-funded programmes, and more needs to be done in developing synergies with other poverty projects through policy dialogue and partnership building. The Government of Vietnam. Cumbersome procedural requirements, for example for withdrawal applications, have been simplified. A gradual process of decentralization has been underway, and what is now required is a formal regulatory framework permitting the financial management of schemes at village-level.
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Agricultural Resources Conservation and Development Project in Quang Binh Province (2004)
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